Choose your language:


Garden Flowers, Garden Plants and Types of Flowers

Fruit Structure and Types


When most people think of a fruit, what typically comes to mind is a juicy edible object, such as an apple, orange, or banana. To botanists, however, fruit includes many plant-derived structures, such as grains, nuts, and many vegetables. In essence, a fruit is an enlarged ovary, often with some accessory tissue, that develops after a flower has been pollinated. After pollination, seed development begins, and soon the peripheral parts of the flower fall away, leaving the immature fruit. The fruit subsequently enlarges and then ripens to maturity. It is then often edible.

Fruit Structure

Almost all fruits have a general structure that consists of an outer layer called the pericarp. The pericarp, in turn, encloses the seed or seeds. Usually there is a space between the seed and the pericarp, called a locule. The pumpkin is a good illustration of this structure, with orange rind as the pericarp, the hollow space within the locule, and the seeds inside the locule.

There are many different kinds of fruits. Some, such as cherries, tomatoes, and apples, have fleshy, juicy pericarps. Others, such as peanuts, milkweed pods, and acorns, have dry pericarps. The variability in fruits represents different seed dispersal strategies. In some plants, the seeds are dispersed while still enclosed within the fruit. Seeds in fleshy fruits are often dispersed by animals that eat the fruit and then either discard the seeds or later defecate them. Other fruit have barbs or hooks that catch on to fur or feathers and then travel with an animal until they are removed or drop off. Still other seeds, such as those of maple and ash, have “wings” for wind dispersal. A few, such as those of the coconut palm and many types of sedge, have fruits that float and are dispersed by water. In most instances, the fruit merely opens, and the seeds drop onto the ground. Some plants, such as witch hazel and the touch-me-not, produce fruits that open explosively and can disperse their seeds great distances.

Fruit Types

Fruits can be classified, based on the nature of the pericarp, into two groups: fleshy and dry. Fleshy fruits, in turn, are classified into several types, including drupes, berries, pomes, hesperidia, and pepos. Dry fruits are also subdivided into several categories, including follicles, legumes, capsules, achenes, nuts, samaras, schizocarps, and caryopses.

Continue of the article: Fruit Types

Development and Maturation

In nature, fruits develop only after the flower is effectively pollinated. If pollination does not occur, the entire flower shrivels up, and no fruit is formed.

Continue of the article: Development and Maturation

Fruit Types and Characteristics

Fruit – types and characteristics

Continue of the article: Fruit Types and Characteristics

See also: Tropical Fruits

Share in: To Publicate in To Publicate in my Blog in To Publicate in

2008 - 2012 Types of Flowers and Plant Garden     Privacy Policy  |  Site Map   |   Contact Us