The landscape design is at the same time both art and work on gardening and territory accomplishment including designing and creation of landscape garden – park plantings, lawns. Also the landscape design assumes the construction of small architectural forms on a site. The main goal of landscape design is creation of beauty and harmony in site territory. Thus it is necessary to take under consideration the variants of usage of buildings and structures existing on a site. This is the main difference in process of creation of a landscape design from gardening where the main goal is the crop cultivation. And the landscape design is a science about harmony creation on your personal site.
History of landscape design
Almost from the very beginning of human development the garden was an integral part of formation of vital space for a man. Especially popular the gardens became at governors of the countries of the East. As well as many other sciences – gardening from the east has extended worldwide.
Certainly, the main goal of gardening in ancient times was cultivation of fruits. But as the time passed people started to pay more and more attention to the decorative component of trees, bushes and flowers.
The conception of landscape design appeared in the Western Europe in the beginning of the 20 century. It is possible to consider that the ancestors of this science were Great Britain and Germany.
Landscape designing and planning of your garden site
The first stage on preparation of a site for carrying out of landscape works starts with landscape designing. As a rule at this stage the art portrayal of the plan is usually done. Thus, following rules are usually observed:
The distribution of plants should have group character, it means that the trees and bushes of the same or similar types have to be planted close to each other. If this rule is not observed, the site has a risk to take a deserted form.
At planning of places for landing of plants and works on a site accomplishment it is necessary to avoid the formation of straight lines. Trees and bushes are especially not recommended to be landed in straight lines as it does not promote the development of their bushiness. Strict symmetry is also undesirable because of formation of an unnatural view though some straightness should be present in the composition.
At the second stage, after the statement and coordination of the outline plan, the works on creation of the high-grade, exact project of the disposition of all elements which will be used in projection of the landscape design of your site have to be done.
At the third stage has to be done the territory preparation on which landscape works will be done. The full clearing of territory from dust and all unnecessary plants is being done. If it is necessary – uprooting of stubs dead wood removal, formation of a crone of existing trees and treatment of sick trees is being done.
After that it is necessary to do the marking of all functional zones according to the plan, contours of paths and platforms, reservoirs, retaining walls and other elements which are used at gardening of the given site.
After that it is usually done the arrangement of the drainage system which features depends on soil structure on a site, level of ground waters, and also the placement of the main elements of landscape design on a site. If it is necessary , the ground delivery and necessary fertilizers and mineral substances are brought on the site.
And at the last stage of landscape works the final embodiment of ideas of the landscape designer is made: first the so-called basis of a site are usually created – the pavement of paths, establishing of illumination, landing of trees and bushes, making of beds and lawns. If it is necessary the landing of big sized plants is made. After that the complex of works on giving the definitive completeness to the site is done: retaining walls, rock gardens, rock arias are erected, reservoirs and streams are equipped. And already now the customer can observe the unique landscape design of his own site!
Of what the landscape design consists
The elements which are applied in the landscape design are very diversed:
Buildings and structures which form the centre of the landscape project.
Lawns (or lawn covering) which consists of grasses of various types.
Green plantings. It can be separate trees, bushes, flowers, and their various combinations.
Large decorative elements of a landscape design. Usually these are: a lake, a pond, a stream, a fountain, a stone compositions or sculptures.
Small architectural forms. Usually these are: canopies, rock arias, the elements of art forging.
Geoplasticity – the device of the relief of territory: slopes, hills, terraces etc.